Testicular Cancer

Staging and Treatment

Testicular Cancer in Canada

Testicular cancer is a serious medical condition that is most common among your Canadian men, 20 – 35 years of age. Some 1,100 men developed cancer in 2017, with a survival rate of 97 percent after 5 years.

The exact causes are unknown but there are risk factors that young people should know about. These include family history or previous personal history, congenital abnormalities, and undescended testicles (one or both). Common symptoms and signs include build-up of fluid, breast tenderness, and numbness, discomfort, and pain in the scrotum or testicle.

Prognosis and Survival

Prognosis and survival depend on a number of factors such as treatment, stage, type of cancer, medical history, and other conditions. If it has spread to other organs (metastasis), this is usually a sign of poor prognosis. The size of the tumor is also a prognosis factor, and seminomas that are over 6 cm are associated with an advanced stage and hence they carry a poor prognosis. Other stage indicators include serum markers and the presence of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Different serum markers are used to determine the stage and decide whether to proceed with surgery, including hCG, AFP, and LDH. High serum levels are typically a sign of poor prognosis and advanced stage cancer. Getting the correct diagnosis is very important in light of the fact that some conditions have similar symptoms. Such conditions are, for example, testicular torsion, orchitis, varicocele, hematocele, epididymitis.

Staging and Treatment

Screening is one of the most important tools for early detection and prevention. The method of treatment also depends on stage, which makes staging crucial. There are three stages, I, II, and III. During the first stage, the tumor remains in the testicular area. Cancer spreads to the paraaortic and retroperitoneal lymph nodes during the second stage and metastases to other organs during stage III. There are different staging tools such as abdominal lymph node dissection, serum tumor markets, and PET scans. MRI, CT, and chest X-rays are also used to determine whether cancer remains localized or has spread to other organs. The method of treatment also depends on the type of tumor and whether it is classified as embryonal carcinoma, spermatocytic seminoma, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, or another type. The main treatment methods include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. Treatment follow-up is also essential and involves imaging tests such as CAT scan and x-ray, blood work, and regular physical check-ups.

Organizations, Services, and Support

Testicular Cancer Canada is a non-for-profit organization that was established in 2014. The organization works to educate the general public, raise awareness and break taboos and stigma, and provide support to patients and their families. The Canadian Men’s Health Foundation also offers information about testicular cancer, including diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, and causes. The Canadian Cancer Society is also a nation-wide, community-based organization that offers support and information to cancer patients. They are offered the opportunity to connect with an online community, which is a safe place for the exchange of information, support, and discussion. Members discuss different topics such as emotional stress, talking to loved ones about cancer diagnosis, dealing with stress. The society also has a toll-free Cancer Information Service that offers information to healthcare providers, families, caregivers, and patients. Specialists provide information on a host of different topics such as complementary therapies, community support, emotional support, and prevention. Patients, families, and the general public are also offered information about clinical trials, therapies and side effects, cancer treatments, and how to cope with cancer.

Regulations and Types of Equipment

Medical supplies and equipment are regulated under the Food and Drugs Act in Canada. Under the act, the sale of equipment that may cause injury is prohibited, and retailers are not allowed to advertise or sell equipment in ways that leave wrong impression about its safety, value, use, design, etc. There is a huge selection of aids and equipment to offer to medical professionals, including ultrasound, colonoscope and gastroscope, and operating table and operating theatre light. The list of equipment you can offer also includes suction pump, syringe pump, anesthesia trolley, and operating instrument sets.


Supplies and equipment can be quite expensive, but the amount you will need for your start-up depends on the products you plan to offer. If you plan to sell supplies that help patients at home, you may need а start-up capital of $10,000 - $15,000. Of course, more expensive equipment such as patient trolleys and fetal monitors require a significant start-up investment. If you need additional financing for your business, then think of developing a good business plan to help you keep on track, meet operating expenses, and get access to low-cost funding.

Your business plan should include a section covering your start-up summary, including processes such as record keeping, reimbursement, billing, and ordering. Start-up costs and assets include office furniture and inventory, marketing brochures and other materials, and office stationary and supplies. Other expenses to list in your plan include payroll taxes, travel, accounting expenses, depreciation, and communications. Your marketing strategy should focus on developing training materials, brochures and presentations, mail lists, and of course, a website to reach wider audiences. Other sections to focus on include training and recruitment, sales strategy, and web plan summary with a focus on therapeutic systems and aids, home care, product information, and so on.


Different sources are available, depending on your start-up requirements, including family and friends and small business and working capital loans. The main advantage of working capital loans is the competitive interest rate to help meet operating expenses. To get approved, financial institutions usually require a spotless credit history as proof of sound loan and money management skills. Other types of financing by private providers include lines of credit, business overdrafts, accounts receivable factoring, and interim and balloon loans, wages, the purchase of inventory and equipment, lease, etc. А loan from family or friends is another option to look into but make sure you agree on the terms, including things like repayment plan and interest rate. Other options include commercial mortgages, equipment lease, loans for equipment purchase, and cash advances against credit card income. Funding under the Canada Small Business Financing Program is a third option to explore, and new companies with estimated revenues of up to $5 million during the first 13 months qualify. Retail and wholesale businesses are eligible to apply.